Great Ships Of 1994
Yard: Hyundai Heavy Industries Ship: Hyundai Utopia Type: LNG Carrier Owner? Hyundai Merchant y Marine Co. Ltd. length (o.a.): 899 ft. (274 m) Width: 155 ft. (47.2 m) Draft: 36 ft. (10.95 m) DWT: 62,650 Capacity: 125,000-cu.-m. Delivery: June 1, 1994 For more information on Hyundai Heavy Industries Circle 42 on Reader Service Card Korea's first-ever liquefied natural gas (LNG) ship wa delivered in June from Hyundai Heavy Industries' (HHI IJlsan yard. The 125.000-cu.-m., 900-ft. (274-m) Moss type ship, named Hyundai Utopia, was put into service by its domestic owner, Hyundai Merchant Marine Co., Ltd. (HMMC) to transport one million tons of Indonesian LNG per year. The Hyundai Utopia, 155 ft. (47.2 m) wide, 87 ft. (26.5 m) deep with a design draft of 36 ft. (10.95 m), is the first of three identical ships built by Hyundai for Korea GAS Corporation's (KGC) long-term LNG import plan. The second ship (Y.K. Sovereign) is due for delivery in March 1995 to Yukong Line Ltd., another domestic owner. Construction of the cargo tanks for the third ship, scheduled for delivery to HMMC in December 1996, commenced in June.
Construction of spherical cargo tanks for Hyundai Utopia started in September 1991 and keel-laying took place in July 1992. She was launched in February 1993 with sea trials completed in November of the same year. Hyundai Utopia successfully carried out gas trials at Pyong Taek LNG Terminal between April 16 and May 5.
Hyundai Utopia has a flying passage on the tank covers, which reportedly gives easy access to the compressor room and to the upper deck for easy survey, inspection and maintenance of the cargo piping and the electric cable.
The cargo containment system is of the Moss Rosenberg concept, which consists basically of a single wall and an insulated spherical tank supported by a vertical skirt. Cargo loading is performed by shore pump facilities after the cargo tank is cooled down. Generated vapor during loading is returned to shore by using high-duty, on-board compressors. During a loaded voyage, generated boil-off gas is heated up and delivered to the main boilers as fuel gas by low-duty compressors and a boil off gas heater.
The cargo is discharged by two electric motor-driven submerged pumps with a capacity of l,400-cu.-m. per hour on the bottom of each cargo tank, and supplement gas is received from shore during discharging operation to maintain cargo tank pressure. The ship's pressure discharge system pressurizes one cargo tank and shifts cargo to the other tank, in case both pumps in a single tank fail at once. During ballasted voyages, small amounts of cargo will be left in the cargo tank for maintaining a cold condition and positive pressure.
Vessel Control The Hyundai Utopia's Centralized Administration and Control Center (CACC), situated just below the wheelhouse, is arranged on the accommodation deck and allows for centralized control of loading, discharging, ballasting, deballasting and continuous monitoring and control of the cargo handling system. It features an integrated automation system; a shipboard management system; a CACC console, or personmachine interface style operation panel, communication system, operating lever of the main engine, etc.; and a custody transfer system. Propulsion Main propulsion machinery consists of a marine steam turbine driving a single propeller through double reduction gears and two sets of main boilers of the gas/oil dual burning type. The machinery is remotely controlled from the wheelhouse and CACC. Unattended operation of the main engine is possible.
Equipped with four independent spherical tanks 131.2 ft. (40 m) in diameter, the ship has a lowered mooring deck, transom stern and single screw propeller driven directly by a steam turbine. In the forward part, a fore peak water ballast tank, a bowthruster room and a void are arranged.
The boiler can be operated exclusively with gas in the normal going mode as well as operated by conventional gas/oil burning. The Automation Combustion Control (ACC) contains the total BOG system, which keeps the pressure in the tanks constant via computer control.
Hyundai Shipyard has prepared for building LNG ships since the 1970s, and now has devoted its No. 1 dock exclusively to the construction of this ship type. Hyundai has developed designs for both the membrane and Moss types of LNG carrier.
Yard: Daewoo Heavy Industries Ltd.
Designer: Daewoo Ship: Titus Owner: Walleniusrederierna Type: 6,000-unit Pure Car/Truck Carrier Length (o.a.) 652 ft. (199 m) Breadth: 106 ft. (32.26 m) Draft: 31 ft. (9.5 m) DWT: 16,600 Delivered: Nov. 1, 1994 For more information on Daewoo Circle 46 on Reader Service Card Daewoo contracted to build three of the 6,000-unit pure car/truck carriers (PCTCs) for Wallenius Lines.
The Titus is the first in the series, and was put into service on a main trade route of Japan-Europe after the vessel's delivery at the beginning of November.
The design was developed in close cooperation with the owner to ensure that the Wallenius' goal of improving service — as compared to existing vessels — was met. The vessel was designed and built as a multi-purpose single screw RoRo PCTC to carry cars, trucks and other vehicles with fuel in their tanks and batteries connected.
The 652 ft. (199 m) long vessel has 13 car decks, including three steel pontoon type liftable decks operated by a mobile deck lifter and one stern ramp/ one side ramp with total design load of 105 tons and 30 tons respectively. In holds, six movable ramps, including a ramp cover and seven fixed ramps, are provided for loading/discharging cars to each deck they serve. The vessel is designed with good stability performance characteristics to meet the U.S. weather criteria and Subdivision/ Damage Stability requirements regulated in SOLAS chapter II-1, part B-l. Automatic heel control system by means of transferring the ballast water between the two wing ballast tanks, is provided. The control devices and indicators are mounted on the heel control panel in the wheelhouse.
The layout of the wheelhouse is designed and built to the guidelines of IMO MSC/Ciro, 566, extending the wheelhouse to bridge wings with front projection and providing big windows on all of the walls. A centralized wheelhouse console for oneman operation is installed in the front center, providing the ship control console and surveillance console, etc. A bridge wing console permitting control of M/E rpm and bowthruster is installed on each enclosed wing bridge. Additionally, an integrated Selesmar navigation system interfaced with all navigation equipment is provided in the wheelhouse.
The vessel is powered by one B&W 8S60MC rated at 20,000 bhp, a power plant which helps drive the ship to 20.5 knots at design draft at MCR. Two diesel generators (1,400 kW each), one 950-kW shaft generator and one 150-kW emergency generator are also installed.
Yard: MTW Schiffswerft GmbH Ship: Type: Owner: Westerdeich Containership Reederei Gebr. Peterson GmbH Length (o.a.): 551.2 ft. (168 m) Breadth, molded: 87.6 ft. (26.7 m) Depth: 47.2 ft. (14.4 m) Design Draft: 31.8 ft. (9.7 m) Container capacity: 1,572 TEUs For more information on MTW Schiffswerft Circle 44 on Reader Service Card Westerdeich, a 551.2-ft. (168-m) containership of type CC 1600, was recently delivered by MTW Schiffswerft GmbH, Wismar to owner Reederei Gebr. Peterson GmbH, Rendsburg, Germany.
Built in accordance with the rules of Germanischer Lloyd (GL), the new ship reflects special attention to the issues of time-saving in loading containers, efficient arrangement and selection of container-handling gear, and optimizing space utilization inside cargo holds and the engine room.
The cargo loading area is subdivided by waterproof transverse bulkheads into four areas where containers may be stowed in 40-ft. bays that can hold two 20-ft. containers. The division of the bays helps ensure favorable installation by three electro-hydraulic, 40-ton capacity cranes with 92-ft. (28-m) outreach. Generally, the vessel is built to carry 1,572 TEUs, of which 576 can be carried in the cargo holds and 986 on deck. The vessel's shape has been designed to meet the task requirements for a high-draft vessel — that is, its freeboard draft will create no significant drop in speed as compared to a high-draft vessel. The design of the bulbous bow fits into this concept. The aft ship design including the stern bulb and the arrangement of a big propeller aperture as well as the wide deck beams in the fore and aft ship meet current requirements for high-speed and advanced containerships. Main propulsion is by one two-stroke diesel engine directly clutched to a low-speed diesel engine of type 6RTA62 by Dieselmotorenwerke Rostock, with an output of 13,000 kW. At 90 percent engine output, the vessel achieves 20 knots. The engine is of reversible type, has two single-stage charge air coolers and two BBC exhaust-gas turbochargers of type VPR 454. The vessel is designed for operation on heavy fuel oil with a viscosity of 600 cSt/50 degrees C. The vessel's equipment also includes an STN shaftgenerator in the wave train, semi-balanced rudder and a Schottel bowthruster.
The main dimensions specified in connection with a low block coefficient CB at design draft follow the current trend toward higher-speed containerships, with moderate power increase. The vessel is classed by GL.
Yard: Hanjin Heavy Industries Ship: Nedlloyd River Plate Type:Container Carrier Owner: Leonhardt & Brumberg Designer: HHIC Length (o.a.): 551 ft. (168 m) Length (b.p.): 518 ft. (158 m) Breadth, molded: 89 ft. (27.2 m) Draft (design): 28 ft. (8.75 m) DWT (design): 19,762 DWT (scantling): 21,473 Service speed: 19.36 knots Delivery: May 16, 1994 For more information on Hanjin Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. Circle 48 on Reader Service Card The M.V. Nedlloyd River Plate, built for Leonhardt & Brumberg by Hanjin Heavy Industries Inc., is a 1,400-TEU container carrier constructed under the special supervision of and according to the full requirements and recommendation of Germanischer Lloyd.
The containership, powered by a MAN B&W 6S60MC two-stroke, single acting airless injection, crosshead, direct reversible, turbocharged diesel, develops 16,680 ps at 105 rpm, has a maximum speed at ballast condition of 20.4 knots, and a maximum range of 15,000 nautical miles. Operation of the main propulsion is carried out according to the pre-set program, by operation of main telegraph transmitter at the wheelhouse control console.
Cell guides have been provided for 40 ft. containers in container holds and 20 ft. containers have been stored inside of 40 ft. container cell guides.
Its maximum carrying capability is 1,444 TEU, including reefer containers (100 TEU). The ship is designed as raked stem with bulbous bow, transom stern without curvature and flush deck with forecastle.
The main hull structure consists of the deck, side shell, longitudinal bulkheads and double bottom in cargo tank space has been built as a longitudinal framing system.
All accommodation space, including navigation bridge and propulsion machinery space, have been located aft. For the comfort of the crew and long life of the vessel's equipment, vibration and noise is designed to avoid resonance.
Yard: Harland & Wolff (H&W) Ship: Erradale Owner: China Navigation Co. Type: Capesize bulk carrier Length (o.a.): 930 ft. (283.6 m) Breadth: 145.6 ft. (44.4 m) Depth: 79 ft. (24.1 m) Design draft: 54.8 ft. (16.7 m) Scantling draft: 58 ft. (17.75 m) DWT: 162,000 Capacity: 181,000-sq.-m. For more information on Harland & Wolff Circle 47 on Reader Service Card In mid-January, the 162,000-dwt capesize bulk carrier Erradale was named at Belfast's Harland & Wolff (H&W). This is the first time in many years that shipowner China Navigation Co. (CNC), part of Hong Kong's John Swire Group, has built in the U.K., the original order being part of an expected series of six such vessels to be delivered to CNC and U.K.-based shipowner Cenargo, each company taking three ships. However, the Cenargo three and two of the CNC ships were eventually canceled due to the lowering of freight rates in the bulk trade, leaving just the one ship on order.
H&W's shipowning arm, Trassey Shipping, was to take delivery of a second vessel. Both this ship and the CNC vessel were chartered to Belgium operator CODAM, the CNC ship for one year with various options, and the Trassey ship for seven years. The Erradale is the prototype of H&W's new S162 series of capesize bulk carriers. The ship is of high standard; the quality, safety and potential second-hand price of the vessel attracted CNC to the design. The main features of the vessel are the 65 percent mild steel content for additional hull strengthening, increased scantlings in tanktop, hopper sides and transverse bulkheads, strain gauges, computerized maintenance management and the advanced International Paint epoxy coating system throughout the vessel. Specifically, in an attempt to resist mechanical damage and avoid fatigue, the Erradale was designed with: tank top and hopper sides in all holds increased to 25.5mm thick mild steel to cater for heavy grabs; side shell thickness 24mm mild steel in way of mid-body main hold framing; and special attention to the design of cargo hold framing and the connection to hopper and topside structure. Paying special attention to corrosion control, all ballast tanks are coated with 300 microns solvent free epoxy; all cargo holds (except tank top and lower strake of hoppers) are coated with 250 microns tar epoxy; and all coatings were applied in a controlled environment at H&W.The cargo system comprises nine cargo holds, each fitted with a sophisticated fixed cargo washing unit and a programmable deck washing system, additional electric generation capacity, and a one-man bridge operation, specially designed by the owner and containing an integrated navigation system. The main propulsion system consists of a Hyundai-built MAN B&W low speed diesel, designed to burn low grade bunker fuel up to 700 Cst at a fuel consumption rate of 125g PS/h. Yard: Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW) Norasia Kiel Type: "Open Top" Containership Owner: Norasia Schiffahrts Length (o.a.): 794 ft. (242 m) Breadth: 105.8 ft. (32.24 m) Draft (max.): 39.4 ft. (12 m) Draft (design): 36.1ft. (11m) Container Capacity: 2,789 TEU DWT (At max. draft): 41,470 DWT (At design draft): 35,380 Service speed: 22 knots Crew: 16 For more information on HDW Circle 41 on Reader Service Card The Norasia Kiel is the s e c o n d "open top" containership from HDW of Kiel, Germany — reportedly the second in all : < of Germany, and one of the first in the w o r l d — and it is also what H DW III deems a successful begin- ning for a new generation of ships.
According to the com- pany, the ship is based on ideas it developed in the seventies, but the differ- ence between HDW's open top ship a n d the few comparable ships built so far, says the company, lies in the various material novelties: • The free deck concept, with the deckhouse placed aft: allows container gantry easy access to all holds, and freefall lifeboats are directly accessible. The y a r d also managed to keep deckhouse vibrations far below permitted values in spite of its extreme placement.
• The H DW lightweight shelter: offers protection from tropical rainstorms and — combined with the deckhouse tower's small area of w i n d pressure and the windbreaking front hood — reduces w i n d drag, resulting in four percent less power consumption.
• The engine plant: fitted compactly as far aft as possible.
• The one-man bridge: fitted out as a ship's operation center.
• Reduced loading and discharge costs, optimum ratio of the number of containers to the propulsive power, optimized arrangement of the main engine with its low fuel requirements, and the ship's very good lines reportedly make the vessel one of the most economical of its size in the world.
Usually containerships have four to five layers of containers on the hatch covers. On an open top ship, hatch covers no longer need to be stored on land during loading and discharging and the containers no longer need to be lashed to the deck. The molded depth was increased and the cell guide frames for the containers were raised to the uppermost layer. Of the 11 container layers, eight are in the hold and three jut out topside.
HDW conducted extensive seakeeping tests with a model in order to counter possible dangers caused by breaking seas in heavy weather. In order to prevent water collecting in the holds during monsoons and to protect the containers from water, the ship was fitted with lightweight rain shelters, each covering one container bay, laid on the drainpipes on the upper edge of the cell guide frames' bulkheads, which lead the water off to the side of the ship.
In spite of the shelters, HDW did not reduce the lavish pumping plant prescribed for the ship. The first three holds are fitted with hatch covers. They will be used to carry dangerous cargoes. Two layers of containers can be carried lashed onto these hatch covers. The Panamax breadth allows 11 containers in the hold and 13 over deck in the athwartships lattice. The gaps between the 13 containers stowed next to each other topside amount to only 45mm. Consequently there are Tshaped cell guides and, for easier container handling, insertion guides placed alternately high and low.
The longitudinal subdivision of the open top holds were determined in agreement with the owners so that they offer a suitable ratio of 40- ft. to 20-ft. holds. An important consideration in the ship's design was the total height of the container stacks. With no hatch covers, the bottom-most containers bear the entire weight of the stack. Between 260 and 270 tons can be placed in the midships area. This means with 11 layers of containers, a weight of up to 24.5 tons per container is acceptable. The ship is powered by a slow-speed, two-stroke diesel, Mitsubishi 7UEC 85 LSC engine plant driving a fixed-pitch propeller. The engine has a nominal output of 27,290 kW (37,100 hp) and a low specific fuel consumption of 165 g/kWh (121 h/hp).
Yard: Chantiers de I'Atlantique Ship: Petronas Tanker Type: LNG Tanker Owner: Petronas Marine Length: 889 ft. (271.1 m) Breadth: 142 ft. (43.3 m) Depth (to upper deck): 103 ft. (31.4 m) Draft: 36 ft. (11 m) Total cargo volume: 130,300-cu.-m. Speed: 21 knots For more information on Chantiers de I'Atlantique Circle 49 on Reader Service Card Chantiers de I'Atlantique, a subsidiary of GEC Alsthom, delivered in July the first of five methane carriers for Petronas Marine of Malaysia. The keel for the first vessel was laid in September 1992, and the production schedule for the series of five will run through July of 1997. The 130,000-cu.-m. liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers have been constructed using automated manufacturing and assembly processes. Each ship has four tanks which are incorporated in the ship's metal structure.
Liquefied natural gas is stored in four tanks, and the Petronas vessel is the first which combines the Gaz Transport Membrane system with a reduction in the number of tanks: four-cargo-tank design, as opposed to a design incorporating five or six cargo tanks, which was previously associated with the system.
Thermal insulation for the liquid methane cargo is provided by a double layer of plywood boxes filled with perlite, an insulating powder made of volcanic materials.
Gastightness is ensured by a ,7-mm thick membrane made of Invar, a steel and nickel alloy which has an extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion. For safety reasons, a second, identical membrane is placed between the two layers of boxes to ensure tightness in the event of a leak in the first membrane. To minimize the cost of assembly operation aboard the ships, components have been extensively standardized and widespread use has been made of prefabrication techniques. The construction of a carrier requires 50,000 plywood boxes, each measuring 3.3 ft. (1 m) by 3.9 ft. (1.2 m), which are produced in a fully automated, purpose- built workshop on site. In addition, the special Invar parts forming the tank corner structures are made in completely pre-fabricated 10-ft. (3-m) long elements.
Special attention has been given to optimizing the supply of the many components installed aboard the ship. Materials are delivered by the erectors themselves using the justin- time method with the aid of a computer system.
One of the first operations carried out inside the tanks is to weld metal elements called coupler studs to the ship's double hull, working from data provided by a precision topographical survey. The studs anchor the first layer of boxes. Chantiers de I'Atlantique has developed a special device for this purpose.
The Dromadec system comprises a viewing unit, an on-board computer, a stud positioning arm and a welding torch. Using the topographical data provided by a laser and a distance measuring device, the computer places each coupler at the desired position before welding it automatically to the double hull. Dromadec reportedly makes it possible to achieve the precision specifications set for assembling the tank's insulation elements, namely a +/- .9-mm positioning accuracy for the studs relative to the topographical data. Chantiers de I'Atlantique and a number of specialist firms worked to develop machines to automate the welding of the mem- branes and achieve maximum quality. A single ship requires 90,000 m of resistance seam welding and 21,000 m of TIG welding. The ship is powered to a speed of 21 knots at 100 percent MCR (26,720 kW) at 93 rpm. The ship is designed to be operated with the LR mark Unat- tended Machinery Space (UMS).