Evolution or Revolution? LNG and the Railroads

Posted by Michelle Howard
Tuesday, April 15, 2014

Electro-Motive Diesel, the world's largest diesel locomotive manufacturer, has taken delivery of the first of four specially designed liquefied natural gas (LNG) tenders ultimately destined for use on the Canadian National railroad.
 


The remaining tenders, each equipped with a fuel tank capable of carrying 45,500 litres of LNG, are due to be delivered before the end of June, according to specialist industry publication "Railway Age".
 


The specially adapted engines and tenders will be put through stationary tests before being handed over to Canadian National for a pilot programme on the tracks starting in the summer ("Westport delivers first LNG tender to EMD", April 11).
 


It is the first small step in what could be a revolution. Just as diesel locomotives ousted steam trains in the middle of the 20th century, LNG could replace diesel in the 21st.



But despite the apparent cost savings from switching to gas from diesel, there are also "key uncertainties as to whether, and to what extent, the railroads can take advantage of this relatively cheap and abundant fuel", according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).



Big Fuel Savings
The seven major Class 1 railroads in North America spent a combined $11 billion on diesel in 2012, which was about 23 percent of their total operating expenses, according to a fascinating research note published on Monday by Nicholas Chase at the EIA ("Potential for liquefied natural gas use as a railroad fuel", April 14).
 


The Class 1s accounted for 7 percent of all diesel consumed in the United States. Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) and Union Pacific, the largest railroads, each consumed more than a billion gallons. The others brought the total up to 3.6 billion.
 


With diesel expected to cost more than three times as much as natural gas on an energy-equivalent basis until at least 2040, according to the EIA, there is a strong financial incentive to switch.
 


The discounted value of fuel savings could be more than $1.5 million per engine, versus the more than $1 million incremental cost of an LNG-driven locomotive and its accompanying tender compared with a conventional diesel locomotive.



LNG's cost advantage is sustained over a wide range of discount rates, pay-back periods and future oil prices. Crude prices would have to slump for diesel to become cheaper, which no one is predicting.



Operational Issues

Set against the fuel savings, however, is the fact switching from diesel to natural gas would create significant operational challenges and costs for the railroads during the transition.
 


New fuelling stations and delivery systems would need to be built. For an extended period they would have to run alongside the existing delivery infrastructure for diesel, which would add considerably to costs, with duplication and extra maintenance.
 


Most of the new engines being piloted by Canadian National and the other railroads are designed to run on a mix of LNG and diesel, and would be able to run on diesel exclusively if necessary because LNG was unavailable in some areas.



The low-pressure LNG engines that Canadian National will start testing this summer are designed to run on a 60:40 or 80:20 mix of LNG and diesel, though they can switch to 100 percent diesel if needed.



Other high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) engines, some of which will also be tested by Canadian National, would run on up to 95 percent diesel.



But there are still concerns that running a mix of dual-fuel and diesel-only engines across the network could reduce interoperability, which is a major financial consideration for the railroads.



There are more than 25,000 locomotives in service with the Class 1 railroads. The capital cost of replacing all or a large part of them, equipping them with specially designed LNG tenders, and providing the associated fuelling infrastructure, would run into tens of billions of dollars, the EIA says.



"The financing requirement of large capital expenditures complicates the rather straightforward calculation of locomotive fuel economics," the agency explains.



"The amount of capital available to Class 1 railroads, either on hand or raised in capital markets, is an important factor in determining whether, or to what extent, railroads can take advantage of fuel savings over time."



Switch Precedents
Railroads have already made two major changes in engine technology. Between the 1920s and the start of the 1960s, steam was replaced by diesel as an engine fuel. Since the 1990s, parts of the fleet have switched from direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC) traction motors.
 


But while the switch from steam to diesel was rapid (under 30 years) and complete (the last steam engine retired from the fleet in 1961), the shift from DC to AC motors has been lengthy (20 years plus so far) and partial (only 17 percent of locomotives use AC motors).



"The advantages of using diesel locomotives over steam were numerous," says the EIA, which helped overcome the railroads' initial hesitation about switching given the vast amount of capital that was already invested in steam engines and their associated fuelling and watering infrastructure.



Diesel locomotives cost twice as much as steam ones, on a horsepower basis, but they could travel further, did not need constant refuelling and rewatering, and avoided a lot of costly maintenance. As a result, diesel locomotives could achieve twice the annual mileage of their steam counterparts.



Diesel engines were lighter and caused less wear on the track, reducing maintenance costs, and they could be switched on and off more easily (which is why they were first used in switchyards in the 1920s).



AC traction motors also have considerable advantages over their DC counterparts. They offer better adhesion to the track, so fewer locomotives can pull more railcars, with big savings on fuel.
 


But the shift to AC has been far less complete than dieselisation as railroads decided that other operating issues outweighed the savings from using fewer locomotives and cutting fuel bills.



The EIA explains: "In recent years, Union Pacific, Canadian Pacific and CSX have chosen AC traction locomotives because of locomotive unit reductions, reliability, interoperability and lifecycle costs. Canadian National and Norfolk Southern have stayed with DC traction because of the incremental cost and the inability to apply train unit reductions."



"BNSF has chosen AC locomotives for coal runs, where they can take advantage of unit locomotive reductions, and DC locomotives for intermodal runs, where they cannot."



The contrasting paths from steam to diesel and DC to AC demonstrate that fuel costs alone are not the only consideration for railroads considering whether to shift from diesel to LNG. Fuel savings will be weighed against other operational considerations.



The EIA has therefore produced a range of scenarios for the future uptake of LNG by North America's rail industry.



In the agency's High Rail LNG case, which corresponds to dieselisation in the 1940s and 1950s, all freight locomotives switch to LNG between 2020 and 2040. But in the Low Rail LNG case, which corresponds to AC motors, dual-fuel engines would be introduced into the fleet at a rate of just 1 percent per year from 2020.



The rail sector's fuel mix could change dramatically - depending on whether the uptake of LNG locomotives follows the high scenario, the low one, or somewhere in between.



Diesel consumption is set to fall in all scenarios from its current level of around 444 trillion British thermal units (BTUs) to anywhere between 348 trillion and just 20 trillion BTUs.
 


Gas use could rise from zero to anywhere between 64 trillion BTUs and as much as 392 trillion BTUs by 2040.



Under all scenarios, the impact on the gas market would remain small. Railroads would account for only a tiny share of gas use, even under the high-penetration dieselisation-type scenario.



The impact on the diesel market, where railroads account for 7 percent of total consumption, could be far higher, but only if a substantial proportion of locomotives switch to the new fuel.

 

Full EIA report can be downloaded from the agency's website:

http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/liq_nat_gas.cfm

 

(By John Kemp, Reuters market analyst; the views expressed are his own. Editing by Dale Hudson)

Maritime Reporter March 2015 Digital Edition
FREE Maritime Reporter Subscription
Latest Maritime News    rss feeds

Energy

Feds Delay LNG’s Port Ambrose Application

The US Coast Guard and the US Maritime Administration (MARAD) have temporarily suspended their review of the proposed Port Ambrose deep-water LNG import terminal.

Austal Graduates 48 4-Yr Apprentices

Austal USA combined two classes to graduate a total of 48 members of Austal’s cutting-edge four-year apprenticeship program yesterday at a formal ceremony held at the Arthur R.

Mexico Unveils National Strategy ahead of Paris Climate Talks

Mexico on Friday said it will cap its greenhouse gas emissions by 2026, becoming one of the first countries to formally submit its national climate plan the

Fuels & Lubes

EALs & Oil Spill Remediation

EALs & Oil Spill Remediation: The Effects of EALs on Oil Spill and Discharge Reporting and Remediation In the wake of increased environmental scrutiny and potentially expanding liability issues,

Big Spending on Liquefaction Terminals

Capital expenditure (Capex) on global liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities is expected to total $259 billion over the forecast period 2015-2019, according to

Brent Oil Rises as Euro Gains Against Dollar

Brent oil prices rose on Wednesday as the euro strengthened against the dollar following a boost in business morale in the euro zone's top two economies. The euro was up 0.

LNG

JV Wins $2bln Freeport LNG Contract in US

A joint venture (JV) between CB&I, Chiyoda International and Zachry Industrial has won a contract worth over $2bn from FLNG Liquefaction 3 for a liquefied natural

Feds Delay LNG’s Port Ambrose Application

The US Coast Guard and the US Maritime Administration (MARAD) have temporarily suspended their review of the proposed Port Ambrose deep-water LNG import terminal.

GAIL Seeks 7 LNG Cargoes

GAIL (India) will buy seven liquefied natural gas (LNG) cargoes for delivery from October 2015 until December 2016, according to the tender document obtained by Reuters.

News

Is China Building a Naval Base in Africa?

Recently, The Namibian reported the existence of a "confidential letter from Namibia's ambassador to China, Ringo Abed, to Namibia's foreign minister stating that

JV Wins $2bln Freeport LNG Contract in US

A joint venture (JV) between CB&I, Chiyoda International and Zachry Industrial has won a contract worth over $2bn from FLNG Liquefaction 3 for a liquefied natural

Puerto Rico Readies for Largest Cruise Ships

Thanks to a pier expansion and enhancement, Puerto Rico will welcome the two largest cruise ships in the world, Royal Caribbean International’s Oasis of the Seas and Allure of the Seas, in 2016.

Intermodal

First Supramax Vessel for Japan-Italy Venture

'DACC Tirreno' was delivered at the Oshima shipyard in Japan yesterday, the first of four Supramax bulk carriers for the dACC Maritime Limited fleet, the joint

Ukraine Arrests Turkish Ship for Visiting Crimean Port

Turkey owned merchant ship flying the flag of Tuvalu was arrested by Ukrainian authorities over a visit it made to a port in Crimea, reports Reuters. The ship's captain detained.

Plans in Place to Test Intermodal River Transport

The Paducah-McCracken County Riverport Authority and Ingram Barge Company has announced plans to assess the viability of Intermodal River Transportation, utilizing

 
 
Maritime Contracts Maritime Security Offshore Oil Pod Propulsion Salvage Ship Electronics Ship Repair Ship Simulators Sonar Winch
rss | archive | history | articles | privacy | terms and conditions | contributors | top maritime news | about us | copyright | maritime magazines
maritime security news | shipbuilding news | maritime industry | shipping news | maritime reporting | workboats news | ship design | maritime business

Time taken: 0.1800 sec (6 req/sec)