With the International Maritime Organization's (IMO) adoption of new emissions standards for large diesel ships and their fuels, EPA can now move forward with a domestic rulemaking action under the Clean Air Act. When fully implemented, this will help reduce harmful emissions by 80 percent or more from large diesel ships, including those that are foreign-flagged operating in U.S. waters.
As emissions decline from other transportation sources, ship emissions will become a larger part of the nation's pollution inventory. In 2001, oceangoing vessels contributed nearly six percent of nitrogen oxide (NOx), more than 10 percent of particulate matter (PM), and about 40 percent of sulfur dioxide (SOx) to the nation's air pollution from mobile sources. Without further controls, pollution will increase to about 34 percent of NOx, 45 percent of PM, and 94 percent of SOx emissions by 2030. Ocean-going vessels dock at over 100 U.S. ports. More than 40 of these ports are in metropolitan areas that do not meet federal air quality standards.
Under the new IMO program, large ships that operate in emissions control areas (ECAs) will be subject to more stringent standards. EPA will work closely with its federal partners to submit an application to the IMO for ECA status for U.S. coastal areas. In ECAs, ships use fuel that contains no more than 1,000 parts per million (ppm) sulfur, a 98 percent cut from the current global cap. ECA standards will ultimately achieve reductions of NOx by 80 percent, PM by 85 percent, and SOx by 95 percent, relative to current emissions levels.
By 2020, ships will be required to use fuel with no more than 5,000 ppm sulfur, a 90 percent reduction from today's global cap. The engine standards will cut NOx emissions by 20 percent and will apply to new engines and to existing engines (as certified low-emission kits become available) beginning in 2011.
This new IMO program is contained in amendments to a treaty known as MARPOL Annex VI. These standards closely match last year's U.S. proposal to the IMO. The success at IMO is important to EPA's decade-long efforts to reduce diesel pollution.