The U.S. Maritime Administration (MARAD) released the voluminous two-part report evaluating electronic seals for use on cargo containers. The analysis was conducted on behalf of the Cargo Handling Cooperative Program and evaluated the operation of four selected radio frequency (RF) based e-seals and one non-RF e-seal. The goal was to develop a technical baseline that could help stakeholders select appropriate solutions to security, operational, and economic requirements. The e-seals tested were widely divergent and represented trade-offs in areas of frequency, communication protocol, reader infrastructure, and seal location. The report recognizes that e-seals alone will have only a limited impact on improving container security
and future efforts should focus on the entire container. E-Seals Report Part 1. E-Seals Report Part 2.
Source: HK Law